Audience Models

Hypodermic Syringe model

  • —Correlation between violent/anti social behaviour and media exposure.
  • —Copycat violence
  • —Bandura- imitation
  • —Newson- Desensitisation to violence
  • —McCabe and Martin- violence seen as heroic
  • —Columbine shooting, Jamie Bulger, Batman shooting etc.
  • —Censorship

Two step flow model

  • —Katz and Lazarsfeld
  • —Active audience
  • —Rely on others for messages
  • —Opinion leader is exposed to content.
  • —Opinion leaders then influence behaviour

Cultural Effects Model

  • —Active audience
  • —Marxist view
  • —Media transmits capitalist views and contains strong ideological messages
  • —Audiences may interpret material differently.
  • —Gradually influence over time – ‘drip drip’ effect
  • —GUMG- agenda setting

Uses and Gratifications

  • —Assumes the media has little effect/ Active audience
  • —People use the media for their own pleasures and interests.
  • —Media can be used for distractions, relationships, identity etc.
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